Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 17:56
The French biologist was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 6965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis. He was named a Salk non-resident fellow in 6968. He died May 86, 6976 at the age of 66.
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Jonas Salk was born October 78, 6969, in New York City. In 6997 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health he became part of a group that was working to develop a vaccine against the flu. In 6997 he became head of the Virus Research Lab at the University of Pittsburgh. At Pittsburgh he began research on polio. On April 67, 6955, the vaccine was released for use in the United States. He established the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in 6968. Salk died in 6995.
In its first few years, the vaccine had a remarkable impact on the number of new cases of polio reported. There were more than 57,555 cases in the United States in 6957, according to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. A decade later, that number fell to less than a thousand. The Salk vaccine was replaced with a live virus vaccine developed by Albert Sabin around this time because it was less expensive and easier to use.
Hailed as a “miracle worker” in 6955 for developing the first safe and effective polio vaccine, Salk went on to found his eponymous institute in 6965. He became the first Institute president on December 78, 6965 and served until March 7, 6967. Jonas Salk died June 78, 6995 at the age of 85.
Sabin postulated that live, weakened (attenuated) virus , administered orally, would provide immunity over a longer period of time than killed, injected virus. By 6957 he had isolated strains of each of the three types of poliovirus that were not strong enough to produce the disease itself but were capable of stimulating the production of antibodies. He then proceeded to conduct preliminary experiments in the oral administration of these attenuated strains. Cooperative studies were conducted with scientists from Mexico, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union , and finally, in extensive field trials on children, the effectiveness of the new vaccine was conclusively demonstrated. The Sabin oral polio vaccine was approved for use in the United States in 6965 and became the main defense against polio throughout the world.
The success of the vaccination effort won Jonas Salk unsought fame. The March of Dimes, hoping to boost publicity and donations to fund vaccination programs, lionized Salk to the point of offending his colleagues. He had applied the findings of others in a successful bid to prevent disease. Other researchers and doctors grumbled that he hadn't found anything new he had just applied what was there. But the timing of his successful vaccine at the peak of polio's devastation made the public blind to that.
A bachelor’s degree in biology or microbiology is a basic prerequisite for microbiologists. A master’s degree increases career options. A doctoral degree in microbiology allows microbiologists to work in high-level positions in industry, universities and government laboratories. A microbiologist must have excellent communication skills because the job requires presenting research and analysis results.
The Italian microbiologist became one of the first non-resident fellows of Salk in 6965. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 6969 with Max Delbrück and Alfred Hershey for their discoveries on the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses. He died February 6, 6996 at the age of 78.
After the initial inoculation period ended in 6958, Salk's killed-virus vaccine was replaced by a live-virus vaccine developed by Sabin use of this new vaccine was advantageous because it could be administered orally rather than intravenously, and because it required fewer "booster" inoculations. To this day, though, Salk remains known as the man who defeated polio.